Our post today is drawn from Richard Webster’s History of the Presbyterian Church in America (1857).
He was full of prayers.
WAS born at Freehold, New Jersey, in 1726. His father, Robert Cumming, from Montrose, Scotland, was an elder, and often sat in synod.
He was educated under his maternal uncle, Samuel Blair, and studied theology with his pastor, William Tennent. Licensed by the New-Side Presbytery of Newcastle, in 1746 or ‘’47, he was sent by the synod, in compliance with pressing supplications, and spent some time in Augusta county, Virginia. He was the first Presbyterian minister that preached within the bounds of Tennessee. Remaining some time in North Carolina, he married Eunice, daughter of Colonel Thomas Polk, the President (in May, 1775) of the Mecklenburg Convention.
He was a stated supply in Pennsylvania for some time. Though not ordained, he opened the Synod of New York with a sermon, in September, 1750. In the following month he was ordained, by New York Presbytery, and installed collegiate pastor with Pemberton, in New York.
Unanimously called, his clear, discriminating mind, his habits of close study, his instructive and excellent preaching, his happy faculty of disentangling and exhibiting difficult and abstruse subjects, peculiarly attracted and delighted his more cultivated hearers. The Hon. William Smith, in writing to Bellamy, says, “His defect in delivery was not natural, but the effect of bad example: his elocution, however, is not, and cannot ever be, as prompt as yours.” But before the second year of his ministry closed, the presbytery was called to consider the difficulties which had arisen, and, in 1752, referred the case to the synod. The complaints against him were, that, when disabled by sickness, he did not invite Pemberton to preach; that he insisted on his right as pastor to sit with the trustees, and manage the temporalities; for encouraging the introduction of Watts’s Psalms, and for insisting on family prayer as a necessary prerequisite in every one to whose child he administered baptism.
He requested to be dismissed, October 25, 1753, because his low state of health would not allow him to go on with his work in the divided, confused state of the congregation. No opposition was made, and he was dismissed.
Cumming joined with his parishioners, Livingston, Smith, and Scott, in publishing the “Watch-Tower,” the “Reflector,” the “Independent Whig,”—spirited, patriotic appeals against the steady encroachments of the royal prerogative on our constitutional liberties.
In feeble health, and with little prospect of usefulness, he remained without charge till February 25, 1761, when he was installed pastor of the Old South Church in Boston. He preached on that occasion, and Pemberton gave the charge, and welcomed him. “I do it with the greater pleasure, being persuaded, from a long and intimate acquaintance, that you are animated by the spirit of Christ in taking this office upon you, and that you desire no greater honour or happiness than to be an humble instrument to promote the kingdom of our adorable Redeemer.”
William Allen, of Philadelphia, Chief-Justice of Pennsylvania, wrote to Dr. Mayhew, of Boston, in 1763, and thanked him for the gift of two sermons, “which, you hint, were preached on account of Mr. Cumming’s reveries; for I can call nothing that comes from him by a better name, nor ought I, if he continues to be the same man he was with us. He offered himself to the congregation here, of which I am a member: though the greater part are moderate Calvinists, they could not relish his doctrines.” After charging Cumming with teaching that works are dangerous to the soul, faith being every thing, he adds, “He may be a pious, well-disposed man, but I believe he is a gloomy, dark enthusiast, and a great perverter of the religion of Jesus Christ as taught in the gospel.”
To Allen and Mayhew, Cumming seemed “an extravagant fanatic.” It was a wonder how he could have been admitted a minister in Boston. Yet he was condemned as a Legalist by the favourers of the other extreme.
Andrew Croswell, a zealous follower of Davenport, had settled in Boston. He published a sermon, with the title, “What is Christ to me if he is not mine?” presenting the view—perhaps distorted—of Marshall, in his “Gospel Mystery of Sanctification,” and Hervey, in his “Theron and Aspasio.” Cumming replied, taking the ground of Bellamy. It was perhaps his earnestness on this point that arrayed his Scottish hearers against him in New York. They had the Erskines in great reverence: they loved the doctrines which rallied Scotland’s best men against the Assembly’s decision in the Marrow controversy. Smith speaks, in his history, contemptuously of the opposition, as of the lower class; and Robert Philip brands it as a cabal of ignorance and bigotry. The fact that these persons called the Rev. John Mason from Scotland, and that they and their children constituted the congregation of Dr. John M. Mason, is a sufficient refutation of these charges.
Cumming died on this day, August 23, in 1763. “He was full of prayers, with a lively, active soul in a feeble body.” This was the testimony of the excellent Dr. Sewall, with whom he was joined as colleague in Boston.
Words to Live By:
We pray this can be said of you as well, that you are “full of prayers.” It is the mark of a true Christian and the blessing of a Christian who is being used in the Lord’s kingdom, seeking His will upon earth.