March 2019

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The Westminster Shorter Catechism, Question 10.

Q.10. How did God create man?

  1. God created man, male and female, after his own image, in knowledge, righteousness, and holiness, with dominion over the creatures.


Created.—Made or formed.

Male and Female.—Man and Woman.

After his own image.—After God’s likeness or resemblance.

With dominion over the creatures.—Having power, or authority, over the beasts of the field, and the birds of the air, and the fishes of the sea.


In this there are four things taught:

  1. That God made man male and female.—Genesis i. 27. God created man—male and female created he them.
  2. That man was made after the image or likeness of God.—Genesis i. 27. God created man in his own image.
  3. That God’s image consists in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness.—Colossians iii. 10. And have put on the new man, who is renewed in knowledge, after the image of him that created him.—Ephesians iv. 24. The new man, who, after God, is created in righteousness and true holiness.

4. That man, when first created, had dominion over the creatures.—Genesis i. 28. And God blessed them, and said unto them,—Have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

Let’s Take a Quiz

Who am I? I have been called the father of American revivalism . . . the forerunner of everyone from Dwight L. Moody to Billy Graham . . . and still, living in the Vineyard movement to the Church growth movement . . . a darling of both the religious right and the Christian left, or both to the late Jerry Falwell and Jim Wallis . . . envisioned in the church as an agent of change to both individuals and the social gospel? Have you identified me yet? If you chose Charles Grandison Finney, you have passed the test. Finney lives on in all these men and movements today.

Charles G. Finney was a Presbyterian minister whose dates are 1792 to 1875.   A product of the New England states, he taught in his early life and later became an attorney in New York state.  One day, he decided to find God in the woods behind his law practice. He came back to his office claiming to have a baptism of the Holy Spirit which he could barely describe, so wondrous was it.  Giving up his law practice, he refused to attend Princeton Seminary, or for that matter, any seminary, and still was ordained into the Presbyterian church.  He began to conduct revivals then and there. What transpired was what has become known in American church history as the second great awakening.  Only this awakening was diametrically different from the first great awakening.

In examining Finney’s theology and subsequent preaching, listen to the words of Michael Horton. He summed up Charles Finney’s theology and subsequent preaching, as believing that God is not sovereign, that man is not a sinner by nature, that the atonement is not a true payment for sin, that justification by imputation is insulting to reason and morality, that the new birth is simply the effect of successful techniques, and that revival is a natural result of clever campaigns.  He consistently held all these positions in both his campaigns and his books. In short, whatever it was that Charles Finney accomplished, his efforts were rooted in an aberrant theology known as Arminianism. And while any real spiritual results were fleeting, his methods persist to this day.

How different was this from the first great awakening which was rooted in Calvinistic theology?  What you would find in the first great awakening was the teaching that God was sovereign in salvation, that every human being was sinful by nature, that Jesus Christ took on human flesh to stand in our place, bearing our sin and achieving a righteousness for us which is ours by faith, that this new life in Christ is a work of the Holy Spirit, and that revival is brought about by that same Holy Spirit Who is not dependent upon human means for the accomplishment of His work.

It was in 1831 that Charles Finney began a six month revival in the Presbyterian Church of Rochester, New York.  He would preach close to a hundred sermons, complete with all the emotional excesses of a man-centered gospel, ending it on March 9, 1831.  It was these meetings which were the zenith of his evangelistic career.  He went on to other churches and revival, but would come back to Rochester two more times.

Words to Live By: There are two approaches to the gospel which distinguish between the First and Second Great Awakenings. So the question is a simple one : Which do you side with — a God-centered awakening or a man-centered awakening? It was this same question which American Presbyterians had to answer in the early nineteenth century.  Old School Presbyterians answered clearly in the theology of the First Great Awakening.

[note: for reasons we’ve not been able to discover, the comment feature on our blog appears to be disabled.]

Our friend Jim O’Brien sent along an email earlier, noting that:

You are too kind to Mr. Finney and, may I suggest, rather unkind to Arminians. Finney was no Arminian. He was an outright Pelagian as were all the rest of the New Haven Divinity. Denying inherited depravity, he needed no ‘prevenient grace’ to restore the freedom to man’s will, as Arminians teach. At least they believe that the Holy Spirit has an important role in conversion. Finney needed no work of the Holy Spirit at all. Anything the Spirit could do to influence a person’s will would be a complete violation of our freedom. It is exceedingly curious that Charismatics have embraced Finney, since, in his theology, the Holy Spirit does precisely nothing.
The effect of Finney’s work was devastating. Since the Spirit was denied, He was also largely absent. Studies conducted years later showed that only a small percentage of Finney’s ‘converts’ were still active in churches. What he accomplished was to innoculate New Englanders and New Yorkers against the Gospel. Historians call that region “the Burned Over District” for a reason. To this day little grows there. It is one of the most Gospel resistant regions in the country. Mr. Finney was a disaster for Christianity in America and if people understood that, no one would laud him ever. He ought to be counted as one of the heresiarchs of the church, just like Pelagius.

How Many of You Know . . .

Mention the name of Pearl Buck and countless Americans will immediately think of the award-winning book “The Good Earth.”  And indeed Pearl Buck did write that famous work and many other novels which earned her both a Pulitzer prize as well as a Nobel prize for literature.  But how many Americans, and even church folks, know that she was instrumental in bringing about the original Presbyterian Church of America in 1936?  And yet she was.

Born of missionary parents in China associated with the Southern Presbyterian church in West Virginia, Pearl Buck returned with her husband to China as missionaries under the Board of Foreign Missions of the northern Presbyterian Church.

In 1932, the book “Rethinking Missions” was published. It stated that its aim was to do exactly what the title suggested, namely, to change the purpose of sending foreign missionaries to the world.  Its aim was to seek the truth from the religions to which it went, rather than to present the truth of historic Christianity.  There should be a common search for truth as a result of missionary ministry, was the consensus of this book.  Pearl Buck agreed one hundred per cent with the results of this book.  She believed that every American Christian should read it.

To her, Jesus ceased to be the divine son of God, virgin born, and conceived by the Holy Spirit.  There was no original sin in her belief structure.  All these truths of historic Christianity made the gospel to be a superstition, a magical religion, and should be done away with by the church, and subsequent mission boards.

Obviously, with beliefs like this, Pearl Buck became the focus of men like J. Gresham Machen, who published a 110 page book on the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A.  That treatment was freely presented to the congregations of the Northern Presbyterian Church.  The result was that Pearl Buck was forced to resign from the China mission, though the Presbyterian Board accepted that resignation with regret.

Eventually, the situation of the China Mission was a powerful basis for forming the Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions in 1933. True Bible-believing Presbyterians needed to have one board which would only send missionaries to foreign lands who believed that Jesus was the only way, truth, and life to God.  Pearl Buck did not believe this biblical truth.

Pearl Buck passed into eternity on March 6, 1973.

For further study: 
“Pearl Buck’s Comments upon the death of J. Gresham Machen.”

Words to Live By: The New Testament author,  Jude, writes about those who “creep in unnoticed” into the church, who “deny our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ.”  As long as the church is on earth, there will be a need for Christians to “contend for the faith that was once for all delivered unto the saints.” (ESV  – James 3, 4)

Glory, Glory, Glory to the Blessed God
by Rev. David T. Myers

Our minds and hearts are drawn once again to one of the diary entries of David Brainerd, that man of God who, as a Presbyterian home missionary,  ministered to the native Americans in the mid-eighteenth century in our land.  Listen to his words penned on March 7, 1743:

“This morning when I arose, I found my heart go after God in longing desires of conformity to him, and in secret prayer found myself sweetly quickened and drawn out in praises to God for all he had done to and for me, and for my inward trials and distresses of late.  My heart ascribed glory, glory, glory to the blessed God and bid welcome to all inward distress again, if God saw meet to exercise me with it.  Time appeared but an inch long, and eternity at hand; and I thought I could in patience and cheerfulness bear anything for the cause of God, for I saw that a moment would bring me to a world of peace and blessedness.  My soul by the strength of the Lord, rose far above this lower world, and all the vain amusements and frightful disappointments of it.”

It is clear from reading this brief diary entry that Brainerd saw clearly that both delights and distresses came equally from God’s hand.   Regardless of which came his way, he was prepared to say, “Glory, glory, glory to the blessed God” for it.  And while this is hard to do, to praise God for dark providences, as one called it, yet it is biblical, to say the least.  “In everything give thanks,” the apostle Paul commanded in 1 Thessalonians 5:17.  It is primarily possible when, like David Brainerd, we find ourselves drawn irresistibly to God in adoration and obedience.  Thus we know that, being close to Him, He will give only that which is necessary for our souls to live closely to Him.

Words to Live By:  It is only by daily walking with God, as David Brainerd did during his short life, that we will be able to accept all what the Father has sent our way.  Question? Are you daily walking moment by moment with the Triune God?

Today’s post looks at the life of G. Aiken Taylor, one of the founding fathers of the Presbyterian Church in America and a leading voice among conservative Presbyterians during the 1960’s and 1970’s

Very Much the Churchman

George Aiken Taylor was born on January 22, 1920 in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, the son of Presbyterian missionaries George W. Taylor and Julia Pratt Taylor.  The influence of that upbringing was clearly manifest in later years, for one of Dr. Taylor’s adversaries once said of him, “Dr. Taylor was born of missionary parents in Brazil, and I happen to know that he is ‘not conscious of color…’”

When he was fifteen years old he returned to this country to complete his education, graduating from the Presbyterian College of South Carolina with the A.B. degree in 1940.  He taught in the South Carolina public schools for a year, and then entered the U.S. Army in 1941.  He served with the 36th (Texas) Infantry Division and rose to the rank of Captain, commanding a heavy weapons company in the 142nd Infantry.  He participated in five major campaigns in World War II, was wounded once and decorated once.

Taylor married the former Blanche Williams of Chattanooga, Tennessee in 1942. Together they raised four children.

After the war, Taylor entered Columbia Theological Seminary in Decatur, Georgia, graduating with the Bachelor of Divinity degree, Magna Cum Laude in 1948.  He was also ordained that same year and installed as pastor of the Smyrna Presbyterian Church in Smyrna, Georgia, where he served for two years before becoming pastor of the  Northside Presbyterian Church in Burlington, North Carolina.  In 1950 he entered Duke University for graduate study and was later awarded the Ph.D. degree by Duke for his dissertation, John Calvin, the Teacher, a study of religious education in Calvin’s Geneva.

Dr. Taylor served as pastor of First Presbyterian Church in Alexandria, Louisiana from 1954 to 1959, and during those years he became interested in the work of Alcoholics Anonymous through his own work with alcoholics, developing an appreciation for A.A.’s principles. His book, A Sober Faith, was one result of that work and was published in 1953.  A second book, St. Luke’s Life of Jesus, was published in 1954.

When Dr. L. Nelson Bell stepped down as editor of The Southern Presbyterian Journal in 1959, it was Aiken Taylor who took on those duties, serving as editor until 1983. It is interesting to note that one of Dr. Taylor’s conditions for taking the job entailed a name change for the magazine, which now became simply The Presbyterian Journal. This name change was a reflection of Taylor’s own ecumenical aspirations. Taylor was instrumental in the formation of the National Presbyterian and Reformed Fellowship (NPRF), which in turn led to the formation of another conservative ecumenical organization, the North American Presbyterian & Reformed Council. During his tenure as editor, he was also active in the conservative movement within the Presbyterian Church, US (aka, Southern Presbyterian Church), an effort which eventually led to the formation of the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) in 1973.  Subsequently Taylor was a key leader in the PCA and was elected moderator of the General Assembly of that denomination in 1978.

In 1983, Dr. Taylor was named president of Biblical Theological Seminary in Hatfield, Pennsylvania, where he succeeded the founding president of the school, Dr. Allan A. MacRae. Taylor was inaugurated in December of that year, but just three months later—on March 6, 1984—he died suddenly.  Memorial services were held in Pennsylvania, with funeral services at Gaither Chapel in Montreat, North Carolina.  Dr. Taylor was buried in nearby Swannanoa, North Carolina.

Words to Live By:
I have been told that it was Francis Schaeffer who coined the phrase “split P’s” when speaking of all the many divisions among Presbyterians. But for all those divisions, the latter half of the twentieth century turned out to be largely a time of focus on union and cooperation. Among the conservative Presbyterian denominations, merger talks were actively underway between various groups from 1956 until about the close of the century. Sadly, since that time the silence has been deafening. Dr. Taylor had the right idea in forming the NPRF, where conservatives of all denominations could fellowship together and thus overcome distrust and distance. Leaving all talk of mergers entirely aside, for the cause of Christ we as conservative Presbyterians need to be creating opportunities to work and fellowship alongside one another. Some might say that the many para-church groups now provide this function, but is that really enough, and are they effective for this purpose?

True Empathy

Two close friends, both pastors, both facing the struggle against cancer. One, the president of a small theological seminary, the other a world renown theologian. Here in this letter, preserved at the PCA Historical Center, Dr. Francis Schaeffer writes to comfort and counsel his friend, Dr. Robert G. Rayburn. The letter provides a wonderful insight into Schaeffer’s view of death and dying, and more than that, his view of the nature of the Christian life, as overseen by the providence of God. The letter also provides us a very characteristic example of Schaeffer’s pastoral concern for others. Dr. Schaeffer was called home to glory just three years later, in 1984, while Dr. Rayburn entered into his eternal reward in 1990.

Francis Schaeffer letter to Dr. Robert Rayburn, March 1981

Dear Bob:

Thank you for your letter of March 5. It was so good to have the news directly from you. Of course, both you and I know that unless the Lord heals us completely that once we have faced the question of cancer we always must also face the possibility of re-occurrence. With modern medicine, and I am sure prayer very much goes hand in hand with it, there is a possibility of the thing being controlled even if the Lord does not heal us completely… I hope for both of us that we will really “beat the whole thing” by meeting the Lord in the air. However, if that is not the case, maybe we will both die from 63 other things or an automobile accident. Living this way has one advantage and that is we have had brought into sharp focus the reality of what is true for everybody from con­ception onward and that is that we are all mortal in this abnor­mal world.

In my own case, of course, if I could wave a wand and be rid of the lymphoma I would do it. Yet in my own case, in looking back over the whole two-and-a-half years since I have known I have lymphoma, there has been more that has been positive than negative. That is true on many levels and I am not just thinking of some vague concept of understanding people better, though I guess that is true as well. Rather, in the total complex of everything that has happened, I am convinced that there is more positive than negative. I am so glad that though I increasingly am against any form of theological determinism which turns people into a zero and choices into delusions, yet I am also increasingly conscious of the fact that Edith and I have been, as it were, carried along on an escalator for the entirety of our lives. I am left in awe and wonder with all this, and I very much feel the escalator is still in operation, not just in this matter of health, but in the battles that beset us on every side.

I wonder if you have read my article “The Dust of Life” in the current (March) issue of Eternity. I think you would enjoy some of the ideas there. The article was not born out of abstract thinking but asking, as I saw the struggles of the younger Chris­tians, what the real balance of life was so as not to have a plastic smile on our face and yet have an affirmation of life rather than a negation of it….

Thank you for plunking out the letter on the electric portable when it was costly to you. Edith sends her love to LaVerne and to you along with my own,

In the Lamb,

/signed, Francis A. Schaeffer/

Happy Birthday! The following PCA churches were organized [particularized] on this day, in the year indicated. Nearly one-third of all PCA churches pre-date the 1973 formation of the PCA, and for most of those churches, we do not presently know their exact date of organization. Typically it is the newer churches where we have that information. Please let us know if we missed a church’s anniversary date and we’ll add it to our list for future use. In some cases here we are using the date when the church came into the PCA, rather than when it was organized.

Covenant Presbyterian Church, Birmingham, AL [Evangel], organized March 4, 1979.
Covenant Presbyterian Church, Columbia, SC [Calvary Presbytery], organized March 4, 1951 and was among the founding churches of the PCA in 1973.
Parish Presbyterian Church, Franklin, TN [Nashville Presbytery], organized March 4, 2007.
River’s Edge Community Church, Oella, MD [Chesapeake Presbytery], organized March 4, 2007.

From the brief church history presented on the web site of Covenant Presbyterian Church, Columbia, South Carolina:

Covenant Presbyterian Church was formally organized by a commission of Congaree Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church in the United States on Sunday, March 4, 1951, in a service held at Watkins School. The Reverend Harry F. Petersen, Jr., Executive Secretary of Congaree Presbytery, was instrumental in the founding of the church and leading it during the early years before a pastor was called. Pastors of the congregation have included the Rev. Cecil D. Brearley, Jr. (1954 – 1960), the Rev. Harry T. Schutte (1960 – 1977), the Rev. J. Gary Aitken (1977 – 1990), the Rev. LeRoy H. Ferguson (1991 – 2001) and the Rev. Eric R. Dye (2004 – present).

The congregation met in Watkins School until August of 1951. We moved when construction of the first sanctuary was completed on property on Alms House Road in the rapidly growing northeastern area of Columbia. Alms House Road was later renamed Covenant Road after the church. In 1959, a new church sanctuary and children’s building were dedicated on the same property. Additional buildings have been added since then to support our ministry.

On July 1, 1973, Covenant Church voted to pull out of the Presbyterian Church in the United States and join the newly organized, more reformed Presbyterian Church in America.

In addition to its witness to Christ, Covenant has served members of the congregation and community with a Christian school. Beginning with a kindergarten and adding elementary grades in 1982, Covenant Presbyterian Day School was established. The school, now known as Covenant Classical Christian School, has grown to a full K4-12th grade Classical Christian School with a current enrollment of 166. Many of Covenant’s members are now serving as ministers in Presbyterian churches, on the mission field and other Christian ministries.

Covenant has always taken an active part in the work of the higher courts of the church. Its pastors and many of its members have served on Presbytery and General Assembly committees.

This short history offers only a glimpse of the way in which God has blessed and used the ministry of Covenant Church. All over the state and nation are those who for a time were touched by the ministry of Covenant. “To God be the glory … great things He hath done.”



Q.9. What is the work of Creation?

  1. The work of Creation is, God’s making all things of nothing, by the word of his power, in the space of six days, and all very good.


The word of his power.—God’s powerful word, by which he spake every thing into being.

In the space of six days.—During the time, or within the compass of six days.


Here we have six points of information:

  1. That God is the Creator of all things.—Gen. i. 1. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
  2. That he made all things of nothing.—Heb. xi. 3. Things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.
  3. That God made all things by his powerful word.—Heb. xi. 3. Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God.
  4. That he made all things in six days.—Gen. i. 31. God saw every thing that he made,—and the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
  5. That all things, when made by God, were very good.—Gen. i. 31. God saw every thing that he made; and, behold, it was very good.

A Steady, Quiet Faithfulness

C. Howard Oakley was born in Haddonfield, New Jersey on May 19, 1917 to parents H. Burton Oakley and his wife Anna Elizabeth Richardson Oakley.  Howard was educated at Columbia Bible College, graduating with the BA degree in 1942.  He next attended Faith Theological Seminary and graduated with the Master of Divinity degree in 1945.  He was licensed and ordained in 1945 by the New Jersey Presbytery of the Bible Presbyterian Church and installed in his first pastorate, serving at the First Bible Presbyterian Church of Seattle, Washington from 1945 to 1957.  As was so common in an earlier day, the young pastor waited until he had a pulpit before he married, and so on December 7, 1945, he married Beverly Jane Bates, also of Seattle, WA.  Children born to this marriage include Bruce Howard, Phyllis Ann, and Susan Carol.  Toward the end of his time in Seattle, Rev. Oakley engaged in graduate level work at the University of Washington, attending there during the academic year of 1956-1957.

Rev. Oakley next answered a call to serve the congregation of the Foothills Presbyterian Church of LaCrescenta, California, remaining in that pulpit from 1957 to 1961.  He left the pulpit ministry for a time and took on the duties of executive director of the National Presbyterian Missions of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, General Synod, from 1961 to 1963.  During these same years he also served as an instructor at Covenant Theological Seminary in St. Louis,

From 1963 to 1970, Rev. Oakley was pastor of Covenant Presbyterian Church in Cherry Hill, New Jersey and from 1973 to 1980, he served as pastor of First Reformed Presbyterian Church in Memphis, Tennessee.  It was during this pastorate that he graduated from Covenant Theological Seminary with the Doctor of Ministry degree, in 1978.  His dissertation is preserved at the Covenant Theological Seminary library and is titled The Pastor and the Federal Prison : A Practical Program for Community Involvement for Working in a Federal Prison.

In 1981, he was granted the privilege of laboring out-of-bounds as assistant pastor at Central Church (non-PCA) in Memphis, and he retained this position from 1981 until 1994.  For many of these same years (1987-1992, he taught at Crichton College, while also conducting a television ministry, “What Is Your Faith?” from 1985 to 1990.

Rev. Oakley is noted as having a radio ministry while serving in Seattle, Cherry Hill and Memphis.  He was honorably retired in 1994, but his last pulpit was in 1996, as interim pastor of Morning Sun Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Memphis, TN. Dr. Oakley died on Wednesday, March 2, 2005, at the age of 87.

Words to Live By:
Quietly, without drawing particular attention to himself, Rev. Oakley faithfully served the Lord’s people in the various stations where he was placed. In so many ways he was an example to the flock, and will, we trust, receive that crown of glory which will never fade away.

1 Peter 5:1-4
1 To the elders among you, I appeal as a fellow elder and a witness of Christ’s sufferings who also will share in the glory to be revealed:
2 Be shepherds of God’s flock that is under your care, watching over them—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not pursuing dishonest gain, but eager to serve;
3 not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock.
4 And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away.

Pictured below, the students of Faith Theological Seminary in 1945. Howard Oakley is seated on the front row, fifth man in from the right side.

A Scottish Covenanter in the Lord’s Army
by Rev. David T. Myers

There was no other man among the early settlers of Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania, who had more influence in directing its early destiny than John Armstrong.  Born in 1717 in Northern Ireland to James Armstrong and Jane Campbell, he was educated there as a surveyor.  Emigrating to the new world, he began to survey for the Penn family who owned the colony of what later on became Pennsylvania.  He and another man laid out the first plan for the town of Carlisle and later on, Cumberland County.  He, as a Presbyterian, joined and was a ruling elder of the First Presbyterian Church, in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

« For more on General Armstrong and the location of the historical marker erected in his memory, click here.

It was said of him that there was united in his character a strong sense of religious responsibility that rarely blends with military sentiment, and yet, in him, it did blend easily.   As one said,  “he belonged  to that race of Scottish Covenanters, who in conflict to which persecution trained them, never drew the sword or stuck a mortal blow without the confidence that agencies higher and stronger than human means were battling on their behalf, and that their sword, whether bloodless or bloody, was always ‘the sword of the Lord.’”  So, when going into a military action, John Armstrong was “always known to kneel in humble devotion and earnest prayer, and afterwards, never seemed to doubt the battle’s fury that the work of blood was sanctified to some higher purpose.”

The initial campaigns were nothing less than furious battles.  When Indian raids against the settlers turned vicious, Col. John Armstrong took an army of 280 men in 1756 on a raid about 200 miles west of Carlisle, known as Kittaning.  They there succeeded in destroying the Indian village, killing its chiefs and many of their Indian followers.  For this, he was rewarded by the Corporation of Philadelphia with a piece of plate and a silver medal.  Two years later, he marched with 2700 men on the Forbes Expedition.  Their approach caused the French to destroy Fort Duquesne and leave what is now Pittsburgh.  On  this venture, Armstrong became a good friend with another militia leader, Colonel George Washington.

In the early days of the American Revolution, Armstrong was appointed on March 1, 1776 a Brigadier General in the Pennsylvania militia.  Later, the Continental Congress appointed him the same rank in the national army.  He used his civil engineer background to prepare the city of Charleston, South Carolina to withstand a siege against it.  Returning to his duty with the Pennsylvania militia, he became a Major General.  He participated in the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown.  Old age was catching up with him, along with old wounds, so he gave up active command and returned to Carlisle.

From 1777 to 1780, and again in 1787 and 1788, he was a member of the Continental Congress.  His leadership skills were not just limited to national office.  He was on the first board of trustees of the Presbyterian college of Dickinson, in Carlisle.  He went to be with the Lord, on March 9, 1795.  On his tombstone in Old South Cemetery, it states “eminently distinguished for patriotism, valor and piety.”

Gen. Armstrong is buried in Carlisle, PA. A photograph of his grave site can be seen here.

Words to Live By: In whatever calling you have been given, the sovereignty of God in all things is to be trusted  with confidence and hope.


Carris Kocher writes to add this note:

Gen. John Armstrong is listed on the Valley Forge Muster Roll which is maintained by the Valley Forge Park Alliance. I was for several years a board member of the Alliance and continue my involvement in a variety of ways. Last week the Alliance hosted the Society of the Descendants of Washington’s Army at Valley Forge during the annual Encampment. If General Armstrong has any living descendants, they may wish to inquire about membership in the society… .

Having learned through your post about General Armstrong’s service, including Brandywine, Valley Forge, and Germantown, I will be forwarding that information to those who work on the Muster Roll to add to his record there.  With Armstrong being at Brandywine, it is most likely that he was also with the army at the Moland House  which is just 1.7 miles north of William Tennent’s House at 880 York Road, Warminster .

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